BRIDGE Report 48: Glossary on Macroeconomics from a Gender Perspective

Publisher: Institute of Development Studies UK
Publication Date: Feb 2000
Is gender relevant to macroeconomics? What are the gendered implications of various economic concepts, methodologies and approaches? This glossary highlights the gender dimensions of key macroeconomic concepts and processes, and areas where gender is increasingly being considered in economic theory, policy formulation and evaluation. In the past, economists have neglected gender as an influential factor, and gender analysis has been restricted to issues of male/female labour force participation and wage differences. In the 1960s, market models were first applied to household production and analysis of time-use to explain division of labour between men and women. In the following two decades, analysis of labour market discrimination and inter-household decision-making showed that men and women had different degrees of economic power. Meanwhile the prevailing debt crises, and the lack of gender analysis in planning structural adjustment programmes that followed, led to women being particularly vulnerable, despite being extensively relied on for their labour. It is now recognised that gender biases exist in what were previously thought to be gender neutral adjustment models. Expanding world trade also warrants greater attention being given to the different impact on men and women of globalisation of world markets.
Is gender relevant to macroeconomics? What are the gendered implications of various economic concepts, methodologies and approaches? This glossary highlights the gender dimensions of key macroeconomic concepts and processes, and areas where gender is increasingly being considered in economic theory, policy formulation and evaluation. In the past, economists have neglected gender as an influential factor, and gender analysis has been restricted to issues of male/female labour force participation and wage differences. In the 1960s, market models were first applied to household production and analysis of time-use to explain division of labour between men and women. In the following two decades, analysis of labour market discrimination and inter-household decision-making showed that men and women had different degrees of economic power. Meanwhile the prevailing debt crises, and the lack of gender analysis in planning structural adjustment programmes that followed, led to women being particularly vulnerable, despite being extensively relied on for their labour. It is now recognised that gender biases exist in what were previously thought to be gender neutral adjustment models. Expanding world trade also warrants greater attention being given to the different impact on men and women of globalisation of world markets.
Is gender relevant to macroeconomics? What are the gendered implications of various economic concepts, methodologies and approaches? This glossary highlights the gender dimensions of key macroeconomic concepts and processes, and areas where gender is increasingly being considered in economic theory, policy formulation and evaluation. In the past, economists have neglected gender as an influential factor, and gender analysis has been restricted to issues of male/female labour force participation and wage differences. In the 1960s, market models were first applied to household production and analysis of time-use to explain division of labour between men and women. In the following two decades, analysis of labour market discrimination and inter-household decision-making showed that men and women had different degrees of economic power. Meanwhile the prevailing debt crises, and the lack of gender analysis in planning structural adjustment programmes that followed, led to women being particularly vulnerable, despite being extensively relied on for their labour. It is now recognised that gender biases exist in what were previously thought to be gender neutral adjustment models. Expanding world trade also warrants greater attention being given to the different impact on men and women of globalisation of world markets.

The focus of analysis has also mainly been on the way markets affect men and women differently, rather than the fundamentally gendered nature of markets and how they function. The United Nations decade of women (1976-85) proposed pay for women's domestic labour at home, and the importance of this work. Research on gender and macroeconomics has since started to influence economic policy making and planning, for example through national statistics attempting to include women's unpaid labour and attempts to integrate gender concerns into structural adjustment programmes. This has been assisted by efforts to increase the availability and quality of sex-disaggregated data. However, a lot remains to be done in this area. There is a lack of practical tools and applications for mainstreaming gender into macroeconomic processes such as state reform and institutional development. Many economic policies are still made in a vacuum from gender analysis, and economists often lack insight into gender issues. Aimed to assist economists and policy makers who are concerned with gender issues, and gender specialists, who work in the area of economics, the glossary provides a helpful tool for bridging the gap between the two groups, to make economic policy more responsive to women and men's different needs. Glossary entries are arranged in alphabetical order, with explanations and examples, and references to further readings and relevant journals.
Is gender relevant to macroeconomics? What are the gendered implications of various economic concepts, methodologies and approaches? This glossary highlights the gender dimensions of key macroeconomic concepts and processes, and areas where gender is increasingly being considered in economic theory, policy formulation and evaluation. In the past, economists have neglected gender as an influential factor, and gender analysis has been restricted to issues of male/female labour force participation and wage differences. In the 1960s, market models were first applied to household production and analysis of time-use to explain division of labour between men and women. In the following two decades, analysis of labour market discrimination and inter-household decision-making showed that men and women had different degrees of economic power. Meanwhile the prevailing debt crises, and the lack of gender analysis in planning structural adjustment programmes that followed, led to women being particularly vulnerable, despite being extensively relied on for their labour. It is now recognised that gender biases exist in what were previously thought to be gender neutral adjustment models. Expanding world trade also warrants greater attention being given to the different impact on men and women of globalisation of world markets.